Background: An increasing body of research highlights the significant role of calling in work and career domains. Nevertheless, very little correlational research has shown positive outcomes of parent sense of calling in child rearing context. To fulfill this gap, this study aimed to test the relationship between mother calling in child rearing and children’s psychological well-being by mediating psychological well-being and satisfaction with being mothers of women teachers in Jalalabad Afghanistan.
Materials and Methods: The study participants included 250 mothers and 250 of their children who were selected by random sampling. The Questionnaires for mothers used in this study were: Subjective Sense of Calling in child rearing, Psychological Well-Being, and Parental Satisfaction. Children also completed the Psychological Well-Being. Methods for analyzing the data were: Bivariate correlation analysis, structural equation modelling for model fit indices, direct effect of the variables, and process macro bootstrapping for the indirect effect of variables.
Findings: The findings of this research showed the designed model had an excellent model fit. The direct path between women's sense of calling in child rearing and children psychological well-being, between mother psychological well-being and children psychological well-being. Between mother satisfaction with being mother and children psychological well-being were positive and significant as p < 0.05. Also, this research showed the indirect effects of mother calling mediated by psychological wellbeing and satisfaction with being of mothers on children psychological wellbeing are positive and significant.
Conclusion: The results suggested that in order to increase child psychological well-being, women should become more familiar with their role as calling in child rearing context.
KeywordsMother Calling, Psychological wellbeing, Maternal Satisfaction
- Bireda, A. D., & Pillay, J. (2017). Perceived parent–child communication and well-being among Ethiopian adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(1), 109–117.
- Carpenter, A., & Donohue, B. (2006). Parental satisfaction in child abuse and neglect: A review of standardized measures. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(6), 577–586.
- Chen, J., May, D. R., Schwoerer, C. E., & Augelli, B. (2018). Exploring the boundaries of career calling: The moderating roles of procedural justice and psychological safety. Journal of Career Development, 45(2), 103-116.
- Coles, D. C., & Cage, J. (2022). Mothers and Their Children: An Exploration of the Relationship between Maternal Mental Health and Child Well-Being. Maternal and child health journal, 26(5), 1015–1021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-022-03400-x
- Coulson, J. C. (2011). Parents' subjective sense of calling in childrearing. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong. https://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3514
- Coulson, J. C., Oades, L. G., & Stoyles, G. J. (2012b). Parents’ subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development and initial findings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.633547
- Coulson, J., Oades, L., & Stoyles, G. (2012a). Parent’s conception and experience of calling in child rearing: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 52(2), 222-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/00221678103824
- DeVito, J. (2010). How adolescent mothers feel about becoming a parent. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 19(2), 25.DOI: 10.1624/105812410X495523
- Dickerson, S. W. (2018). Psychological Well-Being and Health Gains in the Developing World: Evidence from Peru and Malawi (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park).
- Dickerson, S. W. (2021). Maternal psychological well-being and offspring’s outcomes in Peru: A quantitative analysis. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 16(2), 527-571. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-019-09757-6
- Diener, E., & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 1-43. doi:10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x
- Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The counseling psychologist, 37(3), 424-450. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000008316430
- Dik, B. J., Canning, B. A., & Marsh, D. R. (2019). A cultural lens approach to promoting work as a calling. In Positive psychological intervention design and protocols for multi-cultural contexts (pp. 57-80). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20020-6_3
- Dobrow, S. R. (2013). Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of organizational behavior, 34(4), 431-452. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1808
- Doty, J. L., & Mortimer, J. T. (2018). Trajectories of mother-child relationships across the life course: Links with adult well-being. In Social networks and the life course (pp. 391-413). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71544-5_18
- Douglass, R. P., Duffy, R. D., & Autin, K. L. (2016). Living a calling, nationality, and life satisfaction: A moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(2), 253-269. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1069072715580324
- Droogmans, G., Vergaelen, E., Van Buggenhout, G., & Swillen, A. (2021). Stressed parents, happy parents. An assessment of parenting stress and family quality of life in families with a child with Phelan‐McDermid syndrome. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 34(4), 1076-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2022.08.004
- Duffy, R. D., & Dik, B. J. (2013). Research on calling: What have we learned and where are we going?. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 428-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.006
- Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., Torrey, C. L., & Dik, B. J. (2012). Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: Testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 50–59. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026129
- Duffy, R. D., England, J. W., Douglass, R. P., Autin, K. L., & Allan, B. A. (2017). Perceiving a calling and well-being: Motivation and access to opportunity as moderators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.11.003
- Elangovan, A. R., Pinder, C. C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 428-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.10.009
- Gazica, M. W., & Spector, P. E. (2015). A comparison of individuals with unanswered callings to those with no calling at all. Journal of Vocational behavior, 91, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.08.008
- Hagmaier, T., & Abele, A. E. (2012). The multidimensionality of calling: Conceptualization, measurement and a bicultural perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(1), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.04.001
- Hall, D. T., & Chandler, D. E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 26(2), 155-176. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.301
- Hansen, T. (2012). Parenthood and happiness: A review of folk theories versus empirical evidence. Social indicators research, 108(1), 29-64.
- Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication monographs, 85(1), 4-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100
- Hirschi, A., & Herrmann, A. (2012). Vocational identity achievement as a mediator of presence of calling and life satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 309-321. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072711436158
- Hirschi, A., Keller. A. C., & Spurk, D. M. (2018). Living one's calling: Job resources as a link between having and living a calling, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106(5), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.12.001
- Khurshid, S., Kiani, A., & Parveen, Q. (2016). PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF ADOLESCENT CHILDREN BELONGING TO EMPLOYED AND NON-EMPLOYED MOTHERS. Sci. Int. (Lahore), 28(3), 2853-2856.
- Kim, S. S., Shin, D., Vough, H. C., Hewlin, P. F., & Vandenberghe, C. (2018). How do callings relate to job performance? The role of organizational commitment and ideological contract fulfillment. Human Relations, 71(10), 1319-1347. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726717743310
- Kline, R. B. (2011). Convergence of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446268261.n31
- Kyriazos, T. A., & Stalikas, A. (2018). Positive parenting or positive psychology parenting? Towards a conceptual framework of positive psychology parenting. Psychology, 9(07), 1761. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
- Loehlin, J. C. (2004). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural equation analysis.
- Newland, L. A. (2015). Family well‐being, parenting, and child well‐being: Pathways to healthy adjustment. Clinical psychologist, 19(1), 3-14. DOI:doi.org/10.1111/cp.12059
- Park, J., Lee, K., Lim, J. I., & Sohn, Y. W. (2018). Leading with callings: effects of leader’s calling on followers’ team commitment, voice behavior, and job performance. Frontiers in psychology, 1706. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01706
- Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of happiness studies, 6(1), 25-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-004-1278-z
- Peterson, C., Park, N., Hall, N., & Seligman, M. E. (2009). Zest and work. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 30(2), 161-172. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.584
- Richter, N., Bondü, R., Spiess, C. K., Wagner, G. G., & Trommsdorff, G. (2018). Relations among maternal life satisfaction, shared activities, and child well-being. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 739.
- Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081.
- Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (2003). Ironies of the human condition: Well-being and health on the way to mortality. In L. G. Aspinwall & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology (pp. 271–287). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10566-019
- Salonen, A. H., Kaunonen, M., Astedt-Kurki, P., Järvenpää, A. L, Isoaho, H., Tarkka, M. T. (2011). Effectiveness of an internet-based intervention enhancing Finnish parents' parenting satisfaction and parenting self-efficacy during the postpartum period. Midwifery. (6):832-41.
- Vail III, K. E., & Routledge, C. (Eds.). (2020). The science of religion, spirituality, and existentialism. Academic Press.
- Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of research in personality, 31(1), 21-33.
- Xie, B., Xia, M., Xin, X., & Zhou, W. (2016). Linking calling to work engagement and subjective career success: The perspective of career construction theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 94, 70-78.
- Zhang, C., Dik, B. J., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (2015). Work as a calling in China: A qualitative study of Chinese college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 236-249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072714535029