Pathological changes of Aortic Valve Calcification in Experimental Animal Models


Abdul Ghafar Sherzad
Khalil Ahmad Behsodwal
Mohammad Azim Azimee
Muhibullah Shinwari
Imran Zafarzai
Shafiullah Zaheer
Nemat Arash
Alsarhan Osama
Qingchun Zeng


Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is a sluggish and progressive disease that comprises “early sclerosis, characterized by leaflet thickening without left ventricular outflow obstruction, to late stenosis with stiffened leaflets, obstructed flow and compromised cardiac function”. CAVD was formerly believed to afflict the tricuspid or congenitally bicuspid aortic valve and be a passive, senile, or degenerative disorder. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that this is a pathobiological activity that is active and heavily cell-mediated, which shares several risk factors with atherosclerosis. Numerous studies show that CAVD are not a normal aspect of aging and may be linked to certain risk factors. Nevertheless, no pharmacological therapy available to halt or arrest the development of CAVD in a clinically relevant way, and surgery is the only effective treatment option. As a result, there is an urgent scientific need to determine pathobiological mechanism of CAVD and to find new ways to treat CAVD. Animal models are developing as crucial instruments to this aim, assisted by the development of new models and greater knowledge of the efficacy of old models. In this review paper, we will present the most extensively utilized large and small animal models that were used to explore CAVD.


Calcific aortic valve diseases, Aortic valve calcification, Aortic valve stenosis, Atherosclerosis, Experimental Animal Models


How to Cite
Sherzad, A. G., Behsodwal, K. A., Azimee, M. A., Shinwari, M., Zafarzai, I., Zaheer, S., Arash, N., Osama, A., & Zeng, Q. (2022). Pathological changes of Aortic Valve Calcification in Experimental Animal Models. NUIJB, 1(01), 37–60. Retrieved from


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