Background: Norfloxacin is reported to have a wide distribution in the body. It penetrates well into tissues of the genito-urinary tract and crosses the placenta as well and it has relatively high concentrations when it gets into bile. After the withdrawal of enrofloxacin by the U.S. FDA for its use in poultry, the importance of norfloxacin is getting increased and already some veterinary formulations are introduced by authorized companies to the market. Besides, its wide usage for various bacterial infections, new and unrecognized toxicities have emerged; where the most important finding from the pre-clinical evaluation of flouroquinolone was arthropathogenic potential in young animals. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of norfloxacin on the cartilaginous tissues of broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: The norfloxacin powder was obtained from Trichem laboratories in Bangalore. For better dissolving 1gr norfloxacin was first added to 0.25 ml of acetic acid and 2 ml of 50mmol/L acetate buffer maintained at pH 4.5 was added and mixed until the drug was completely dissolved. The experiment was carried out under hygienic conditions and standard management. One-week-old broiler chickens were procured from a reputed hatchery and divided into five groups; each containing six chickens. The study was conducted for 28 days.
Findings: In the result of the histopathological study, chondrocytes were swollen with degeneration, infiltrated neutrophils, and improper ossification. The chondrocytes degeneration around the blood vessels was also noticed. The lesions were supported by the biochemical finding of ALP (Alkaline phosphatase). On the 21st day of treatment. There was a significant increase in ALP values of groups IV, and V. On the 28th day of treatment the mean serum ALP was significantly increased in groups III, IV, and V birds (P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.01) respectively. They were compared to group I birds.
Conclusion: It was concluded that norfloxacin has a toxic effect on the cartilaginous tissues of chickens at the dose of 333 and 1100 mg/kg orally.
KeywordsNorfloxacin, Toxicity, Chondrocytes degeneration, Broiler chicken, Cartilage, Alkaline phosphatase
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