Growth and Biochemical Characters of Basil (Occimum basilicum) in Response to Low Irrigation and UV-B


Wahid Ahmad Mohammady
Homayoon Azadani
Abdul Wasi Amiri


Various basil cultivars in greenhouse can be cultivated round all year with the necessary growth conditions. Environmental stresses such as low irrigation and ultraviolet radiation are among the factors affecting the plant growth and development process. In the current study, five treatments for duration of ultraviolet radiation (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes per day) and four irrigation levels (100, 75, 50, 30 % of field capacity) on two green and violet type of basil based on factorial in a completely randomize design experiment was conducted. The results showed that the duration of UV irradiation, low irrigation stress and their interaction effected morphological and biochemical responses of both basil cultivars. Measured traits such as leaf thickness, secondary metabolites, percent of essential oil, sodium and potassium elements content under UV treatments, low irrigation stress, and their interactions significantly increased compared to the control, but inter-nod decreased due to ultraviolet radiation, low irrigation stress and interaction effects. The amount of soluble sugars increased due to low irrigation stress (especially relatively severe low irrigation stress, 50% FC), but decreased due to high levels of UV treatments compared to the control, according to the result, UV radiation and low irrigation stress had shown synergistically stat together. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of UV light duration (280–320 nm), low irrigation stress, and the combined effects of UV light duration and low irrigation stress on morphological and biochemical responses of two basil cultivars.


Basil, Drought, Essential oil, Flavonoid, Potassium


How to Cite
Mohammady, W. A., Azadani, H., & Amiri, A. W. (2023). Growth and Biochemical Characters of Basil (Occimum basilicum) in Response to Low Irrigation and UV-B. NUIJB, 2(04), 160–172. Retrieved from


  1. Assaha, D. V. M., Liu, L., Ueda, A., Nagaoka, T. and Saneoka, H. (2016). Effects of low irrigation stress on growth, solute accumulation and membrane stability of leafy vegetable, huckleberry (Solanum scabrum Mill). J. Environ. Biology. 37(1): 107-14.
  2. Abedzadeh, M. and Pourakbar, L. (2013). The interactions of UV-B and UV-C radiation and salicylic acid on some physiological and biochemical parameters in Melissa officinalis L. Plant Process and Function. 3(2): 1-15. (In pension).
  3. Bates, L. (1973). 'Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies'. Plant and Soil. 39(1): 205-207.
  4. Buchholz, G., B. Ehmann and E.Wellman. (1995). Ultraviolet light inhibition of phytochorome-induced flavonoid biosynthesis and DNA photolyase formation in mustard cotyledons (Synapis alba L.). Plant Physiology. 108: 227-234.
  5. Ciurli, A., H. Reyes and L. Gajlielminetti. (2017). Commercial advantage on basil architecture by ultra Violet-B irradiation. Journal of Advance in Horticulture Science. 31(3): 215-221.
  6. Chang, C., Yang, M., Wen, H., and Chern, J. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of food and Drug Analysis. 10: 178-182.
  7. Chang X. (2004). Effects of Light and Temperature on Volatile Oil Compounds and Growth in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nottingham.
  8. Correia, C.M., Coutinho, J. F., Bacelar, E.A., Goncalves, B.M., Bjorn, L.O. and Pereira J.M. (2012). Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize. The Scientific World Journal. Vol (2012): 1-11. ID 608954
  9. Ehdaei, B., Alloush, G. A., Madore, M. A. and Waines, J. G. (2006). Genotype variation for stem reserves and mobilization in wheat: II. Postanthesis changes in internode water soluble carbohydrates. Crop Science. 46: 2093-2103
  10. El-Esawi, M. A and Alayafi, A.A. (2019). Overexpression of StDREB2 Transcription Factor Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Genes. 10(142): 1-15.
  11. Guo, J. and Wang, M. H. (2008). Characterization of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene
  12. (SlPAL5) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.L ). Molecular Biology Report. 36(6):1579-85.
  13. Hosseini Sarqin, S., Karaptian, j. and Khara. G. (2011). Ultraviolet radiation studies on some of the structural and Ultra-structural processes of chili pepper (Capsicum longum). Science Publication of Tarbiat Modarres University. (In pension).
  14. Hasanuzzaman, M., Borhannuddin Bhuyan, M. H. M., Nahar, K., Shahadat Hossain, M.d., Al Mahmud, J., Shahadat Hossen, M.d., Chowdhury Masud, A.A., Moumita. and Fujita, M. (2018). Journal of Agronomy. 8 (31): 1-29.
  15. ndrajith, A. and KC. Ravindran. (2009). Antioxidantpotential of Indian medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus L. under supplementary UV-B radiation. Recent Res Sci Technol. 1:034–039.
  16. Janetta Nithia, S.M. and Shanthi, N. (2015). Effet of enhanced solar UV-B (280-320) radiation on physiology and volatile oil synthesis in (Ocimum basilicum L). World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4 (07): 687-698.
  17. Jaakola Laura. (2005). New insights into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruits. Trends in Plant Science. 18(9): 477-483.
  18. Kacar, B., V. Katkat and S.Ozturk. (2009). Plant physiology, Book. Nobel Publishing. ISBN: 975: 591-833-7.
  19. Kramer, G.F., Norman, H.L., Krizek, D.T. and Mirecki, R.M. (1991). Influence of UV-B radiation on polyamines, lipid peroxidation and membrance lipids in cucumber. Phytochemistry. 30: 2101-2108.
  20. Kafi, M. and Damghani, A.M. (2004). Mechanisms of Environmental Stress Resistance in plants. Ferdowsi University Press, Mashhad. 2: 11-106. (In pension).
  21. Kafi, M., Barzoee, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A. and Nabati, J. (2010). Physiology of Environmental Stress in plants. Jihad Publication Mashhad University. 3: 17-456. (In pension).
  22. Khurami, S.K., Jamei, R. and Tabatabaei Koupaei, S.G. (2014). UV Radiation Induced Changes of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Enzymes in Okra (Hibiscus esculents L.) Seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding. 4(1): 23-33.
  23. Karimi, S., Abbaspour, H., Sinaki, J.M. and Makarian, H. (2012). Effects of Water Deficit and Chitosan Spraying on Osmotic Adjustment and Soluble Protein of Cultivars Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.). Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry. 8 (3): 160-169.
  24. Kumazawa, S., Taniguchi, M., Suzuki, Y., Shimura, M., Kwon, M., and Nakayama, T. (2002). Antioxidant activity of polyphenol in carob pods. Agriculture and food Chemistry. 50: 373-377.
  25. Liheng, H., Xiaoyun, J., Zhiqiang, G. and Runzhi, L. (2011). Genotype-dependent response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling to drought, UV-B radiation and their combined stress. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(20): 4046-4056.
  26. Lisar, S.Y., R. Motafakkerazad, M. Mosharraf, M. Ismail and M.Rahman. (2012). Water Stress in Plants: Causes, Effects and Responses. Research gate. Introductory Chapter.1-14.
  27. Liu, M. 2012 Responses of the flavonoid pathway to UV radiation stress and the correlation with the lipid antioxidant characteristics in the desert plant (Caryopteris mongolica). Acta Ecologica Sinica. 32: 150-155.
  28. Lee, J. and Scagel, C.F. (2009). Chicoric acid found in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. Food Chemistry. 115(2): 650–656.
  29. Mc Donald, S., prenzler, P. D., Autolovich, M. and robards, K. (2001). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extract. food chemistry. 73: 84-73.
  30. Piri, E., M. Babaeian, A. Tavassoli and Y. Esmaeilian. (2011). Effects of UV irradiation on plants. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5(14): 1710-1716.
  31. Rajabbeigi, E., I. Eichholz, N. Beesk, Ch. Ulrich, L.W. Kroh, S. Rohn and S.H. Kiel. (2013). Interaction of drought stress and UV-B radiation – impact on biomass production and flavonoid metabolism in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality. 86: 190 -197.
  32. Suzuki, N., Rivero, R.M., Shulaev, V., Blumwald, E. and Mittler, R. (2014). Abiotic and biotic stress combinations. New Phytologist. 203(1): 32-43.
  33. Sirousmehr, A., Arbabi, J. and Asgharipour. M.R. (2014). Effect of Drought Stress Levels and Organic Manures on Yield, Essential Oil Content and Some Morphological Characteristics of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum). Advances in Environmental Biology. 8(4): 880-885.
  34. Sarikhani, H. (2013). Effect of UV-A Radiation on Growth and Some Physiological Properties of Peppermint (Mentha piperita). Plant production technology. 2(13): 25-44. In Persian
  35. Salama, M.H., Al-Watban, A.A. and Al-Fughom A.T. (2011). Effect of ultraviolet radiation on chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and proline contents of some annual desert plants. Saudi J Biol Sci. 18(1): 79–86.
  36. Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. (1992). In: Biochemical methods for agriculture sciences Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 184-185.
  37. Tadayyon, A., Nikneshan, P. and Pessarakli, M. (2018). Effects of drought stress on concentration of
  38. macro- and micro-nutrients in Castor (Ricinus communis L.) plant. Journal of plant nutrition
  39. (41): 304–310.