Interplay of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, General Anxiety Disorder and Resilience among Earthquake Survivors in Zinda Jan District of Herat Province


Aziz-ur-Rahman Niazi
Mina Alekozay
Noor Ali Mohmand
Sayed Javid Sadat
Ehsan Ahmad Ahmadzadeh
Taiebe Hamedi
Temorshah Rahimi
Abdul Fattah Najm


Background: Frequent earthquakes that hit Herat province in October 2023 resulted in considerable loss of lives and massive property damage. They caused massive physical and psychosocial injuries; while physical injuries could be treated by healthcare professionals, psychological injuries could be neglected. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general anxiety disorder (GAD); and their association with resilience among earthquake survivors in Zinda Jan district.
Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during October and November 2023, among 418 cases -including 206 (49.3%) males and 212 (50.7%) females- with a mean age of 40.16±14.17 years. Sociodemographic data was collected via a structured questionnaire, data on PTSD was collected using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), and data on GAD was collected via the Dari-version of GAD-7 questionnaire.
Findings: GAD was detected in all (100%) participants, of whom 6 (1.4%), 29 (6.9%), and 383 (91.6%) had mild, moderate, and severe anxiety, respectively. Furthermore, 153 (36.6%), 134 (32.1%) and 131 (31.3%) participants suffered from mild, moderate and severe PTSD. As per resilience, 153 (36.6%) had low resilience, 142 (34.0%) had moderate resilience, and 123 (29.4%) had high resilience. There was a significant association between resilience and PTSD (p=0.011), but no significant association was observed between resilience and GAD (p=0.515). GAD was significantly associated with gender, marital status, and participants’ access to mental health. A significant association was found between PTSD and participants’ occupation, nutrition status, and access to mental health.
Conclusion: The interplay between post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and resilience among earthquake survivors in the Zinda Jan district is a complex and multifaceted issue that demands further research and intervention. While the experiences of an earthquake can lead to the development of PTSD and GAD, resilience plays a crucial role in helping individuals overcome these challenges and rebuild their lives. A comprehensive understanding of this interplay can inform the development of effective interventions and prevention programs to support earthquake survivors and promote their overall well-being.


Earthquake, GAD, PTSD, Herat, Resilience


How to Cite
Niazi, A.- ur-R., Alekozay, M., Mohmand, N. A., Sadat, S. J., Ahmadzadeh, E. A., Hamedi, T., Rahimi, T., & Najm, A. F. (2023). Interplay of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, General Anxiety Disorder and Resilience among Earthquake Survivors in Zinda Jan District of Herat Province. NUIJB, 2(04), 104–114. Retrieved from


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