Prevalence of Bumble Foot Disease in Backyard Chickens in Qarabagh District of Kabul, Afghanistan


Ghulam Haidar Olfat
Mirafzal Afzali
Ahmad Jan Abi
Ihsanullah Hamraz


Bumble foot is a condition in which the feet and toes of birds (especially chickens) become inflamed and necrotic. The main causes of the disease are bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp, and Escherichia coli), fungi, or yeasts. Bumble foot disease was first reported in 1980 as a skin disease of broilers. Bumble foot is extremely important due to its high incidence and mortality rate. But in Afghanistan, there are no accurate statistics about the prevalence of bumble foot disease in backyard and broiler chickens, so the purpose of this research is to study the prevalence and identify different grades of bumble foot disease in backyard chickens in Qarabagh district of Kabul province. This research was conducted on 2025 backyard chickens in 18 villages of Qarabagh district. In this research, both a questionnaire and a visual assessment system were used. A 5-point scoring system was used for the visual assessment of Bumble Foot. Skin without lesion (grade 0), superficial lesion ≤ 0.5 cm (grade 1), superficial lesion > 0.5 cm (grade 2), deep lesion > 1.0 cm (grade 3), and one or more deeper lesions on the toe (grade 4). All data was gathered by a veterinarian using a random sampling method, and then analyzed by (MS Excel) and (SPSS statistical software Version 23). As a result of this research, it was found that 128 chickens were affected by bumble foot disease, with a prevalence rate of 6.3%. The results of this research show that the prevalence of bumble foot disease is higher in hens (62.5%) than in roosters (37.5). Among the 128 infected chickens, 5.4% were grade 0, 34.3% were grade 1 32.8% were grade 2, 21.8% were grade 3, and 5.4% were grade 4. The prevalence rate of bumble foot disease in backyard chickens was lower than in broiler chickens. Among the 128 infected chickens, most of them had moderate and severe disease.


Backyard, Bumble Foot, Chickens, Kabul, Prevalence, Qarabagh


How to Cite
Olfat, G. H., Afzali, M., Abi, A. J., & Hamraz, I. (2024). Prevalence of Bumble Foot Disease in Backyard Chickens in Qarabagh District of Kabul, Afghanistan. NUIJB, 3(01), 27–32. Retrieved from


  1. Agapito, E.R. & Malvar, L. A. A. (2019). Performance of Broilers and Occurrence of Pododermatitis as Influenced by Different Flooring and Littering Materials. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 8(11), 168–172. 2319-7064
  2. Alabi, O.M., Olagunju, S.O., Aderemi, F.A., Lawal, T.E., Oguntunji, A.O., Ayoola, M. O., Oladejo, O.A., Adeleye, B.E., Adewumi, A.A., Alabi, B.D., & Tarta, A. (2023). Effect of litter management systems on incidence and severity of footpad dermatitis among broilers at finisher stage. Animal Health and Well Being, 8, 1–8.
  3. Amer, M.M. (2020). REVIEW: Footpad dermatitis (FPD) in chickens. Korean Journal of Food & Health Convergence, 6(4), 11–16.
  4. Ashar, J. MD., Badwaik, P. Y, Magar, S. A. & Bhojne, G. R. (2021). Bumblefoot in a pigeon (Columba livia): A clinical case report. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 9(2), 971–972.
  5. Bassler , A. W., Arnould , C., Butterworth , A., Colin , L., De Jong, I. C., Ferrante, V., Ferrari , P., Haslam, S., Wemelsfelder, F., & Blokhuis, H. J. (2013). Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks. Poultry Science, 92, 2811–2826. 10.3382/ps.2013-03208
  6. Choudhury, D. (2019). Management of Bumble Foot in Duck. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci, 8(10), 12–15.
  7. Chung, T. H., Oh, S., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. J., & Park, C. (2015). Successful treatment of severe bumble foot in a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). In Journal of Veterinary Clinics (Vol. 32, Issue 3, pp. 268–271).
  8. De Jong, I. C., Harn, J. V., Gunnink, H., Hindle, V. A., & Lourens, A. (2012). Footpad dermatitis in Dutch broiler flocks: Prevalence and factors of influence. Poultry Science, 91, 1569–1574. 10.3382/ps.2012-02156
  9. Freeman, N., Tuyttens, F. A. M., Johnson, A., Marshall, V., Garmyn, A., & Jacobs, L. (2020). Remedying contact dermatitis in broiler chickens with novel flooring treatments. In Animals (Vol. 10, Issue 10, pp. 1–14).
  10. Hassan, A. H., Hussein, S. A., & Abdulahad, E. A. (2012). Pathological and bacteriological study of bumblefoot cases in Sulaimaniyah province. In Al-Anbar Journal of Veteriner Science (Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 195–201).
  11. Jacob, F. G., Baracho, M. S., Nääs, I. A., Salgado, D. A., & Souza, R. (2016). Incidence of pododermatitis in broiler reared under two types of environment. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola / Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 18(2), 247–254.
  12. Louton, H., Bergmann, Sh., Piller, A., Erhard, M., Stracke, J., Spindler, B., Schmidt, P., Schulte-Landwehr, J., & Schwarzer, A. (2022). Automatic Scoring System for Monitoring Foot Pad Dermatitis in Broilers. Agriculture, 12, 221.
  13. Nazia, Malhi, K. K., Durrani, N. U., Kamboh, A. A., Lakho, Sh. A., Rind, R., Abro, Sh. H., Soomro, N. M. (2015). Prevalence of Septic Arthritis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus in Poultry Birds at Tandojam, Pakistan. Journal of Animal Health and Production, 3(3), 73–77.
  14. Opengart, K., Bilgili, S. F., Warren, G. L., Baker, K. T., Moore, J. D., A., & Dougherty, S. (2018). Incidence, severity, and relationship of broiler footpad lesions and gait grades of market-age broilers raised under commercial conditions in the southeastern United States. J. Appl. Poult. Res., 27, 424–432.
  15. Raosoft. (2004). Sample size calculator. Raosoft.
  16. Shepherd, E. M. & Fairchild, B.D. (2010). Footpad dermatitis in poultry. Poultry Science, 89, 2043–2051. 10.3382/ps.2010-00770
  17. Wikipedia. (2023). Qarabagh_District,_Kabul.,_Kabul

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.