Blood Metabolites and Hormonal Profiles in Dairy Cows during Estrus Cycle in Jalalabad Afghanistan


Mohammad Hamid Kadwal
Mohammad Malyar Rahmani
Redwanullah Memlawal


Background: The study was aimed to investigate the productivity and fertility status of the crossbred and Watani (local) cows in Jalalabad and role of blood metabolites in reproductive cyclicity.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dairy cows were selected in five zones comprising city, north, west, south and east of Jalalabad. Fifty crossbred cows (French Friesian x Watani) and 50 Watani cows were selected. Blood samples were collected (10 ml) for blood metabolites and hormonal profiles on day 1, 4 and 17th of the estrus cycle and analysed through UV/Vis spectrophotometer and hormonal profiles through ELISA using Humareader.
Findings: The concentrate intake in crossbred cows was 2.00 ± 0.20 ranging from 1.63 to 2.42 kg day-1, while in Watani cows the values were 2.20 ± 0.21, 1.80 and 3.30 kg day-1, respectively. The milk production for crossbred cows was 7.64 ± 0.14 ranging from 7.28 to 8.00 kg day-1, while in Watani cows the values were 3.75 ± 0.49, 2.00 and 4.88 kg day-1, respectively. Mucus discharge in crossbred cows was 2.00 ± 0.22 (1.50 to 2.50 scales) against 2.45 ± 0.19 in Watani cows. Standing for mounting in crossbred cows was higher (0.43 ± 0.86) than Watani cows (0.26 ± 0.09; scale 0 to 4), Triglycerides varied from 100.94±2.79 to 117.52±5.77 mg/dl (P=0.024) with significant effect of estrus days but no effect of region. Serum glucose in crossbred cows was 67.18±1.50 mg/dl while in Watani cows, it was 65.20±1.33. Protein was 7.62±0.11 in crossbred cows and 6.99±0.13 g/dl in Watani ones. The respective values for triglycerides were 110.69±3.43 and 104.03±3.40 mg/dl. Progesterone concentrations were 0.581±0.076 ng/ml and 0.569±0.09 ng/ml while LH was 28.41±3.31 and 24.20±2.64 ng/ml in the two breeds. All the blood metabolites and hormonal concentrations were not different among regions, however triglycerides showed a constant increase during the succeeding phases while glucose manifested an opposite pattern during the estrus cycle. The level of glucose in the city animals was higher (69.21±2.37 mg/dl, (P=0.127). Progesterone concentration increased on day 4th and declined on 17th day while LH showed a consistent increase during the period.
Conclusion: This study concluded that breeding of the local Watani cows with French Frisian semen resulted in production of crossbred cows. The crossbred cows showed higher concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides, proteins, progesterone and LH hormones, reflecting higher metabolic activities than the local Watani cows.


Blood, Metabolite, Hormone, Dairy Cow, Estrus Cycle


How to Cite
Kadwal, M. H., Rahmani, M. M., & Memlawal, R. (2023). Blood Metabolites and Hormonal Profiles in Dairy Cows during Estrus Cycle in Jalalabad Afghanistan. NUIJB, 2(01), 01–14. Retrieved from


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